On my website, you’ll find the sentence: “Listening WITH someone is an ethical choice.” This sentence forms the foundation of all my work, focusing on the importance of listening from a humanist perspective. One of my greatest inspirations in this field is Emmanuel Levinas, an incredible French/Jewish philosopher who lived from 1906 to 1995. His ideas delve deep into human relationships, particularly the concept of the ‘Other’ and the immense significance of listening.
Levinas believed that our sense of self is intricately connected to our relationships with others. He challenged the idea of individualism, emphasizing the interconnectedness of all beings. As the poet John Donne famously wrote, “No man is an island.” According to Levinas, understanding ourselves fully requires acknowledging the importance of the ‘Other’ in our lives.
Encountering the ‘Other’ is a transformative experience, according to Levinas. When we come face-to-face with someone, we instantly feel responsible towards them. The mere presence of the ‘Other’ calls upon us to respond ethically and empathetically. Through these encounters, our reasoning abilities are awakened as we feel compelled to justify our actions concerning the needs and demands of others.
In one of his books, “Totality and Infinity,” which I must admit was very challenging to get through (I didn’t:-)), Levinas highlighted the ethical imperative of recognizing and embracing the uniqueness and vulnerability of the ‘Other.’ He argued that true morality lies in going beyond our self-interests and recognizing the humanity of others. The face of the ‘Other’ serves as a powerful symbol, reminding us that we are not the center of the universe and that everything does not revolve around us. We are called upon to extend our understanding and care toward the ‘Other,’ acknowledging their rights and needs as equal to ours.
At the heart of Levinas’s philosophy lies the act of listening. He believed that listening and openness can only achieve genuine understanding and connection with the ‘Other’. By genuinely hearing the perspectives, experiences, and concerns of others, we transcend our limited viewpoints and expand our understanding of the world. Listening becomes an ethical gesture, affirming the other person’s existence and validating their very being.
Levinas’s philosophy strongly resonates with the concept of empathy, which involves the ability to understand and share the feelings of others. Through empathetic listening, we develop a deeper appreciation for the lived experiences of those around us. This, in turn, nurtures compassion and a commitment to alleviate the suffering and injustices the’ Other faces.’
Even today, Levinas’s ideas significantly impact our social discourse. His emphasis on the importance of the ‘Other’ challenges us to move beyond self-centered perspectives and embrace a more inclusive and compassionate worldview. Recognizing our responsibility towards others and genuinely listening to them can cultivate meaningful connections, promote social justice, and contribute to a more harmonious and equitable world.
In our society that often promotes self-interest and individualism, Levinas’s philosophy serves as a profound reminder that our existence is intertwined with the lives of others. It urges us to transcend our limited viewpoints, embrace the ‘Other,’ and engage in authentic dialogue and listening with empathy. Only by doing so can we fulfill our moral responsibilities and contribute to creating a more compassionate and interconnected world.
Portrait: Ulf Andersen